The type of connection designed has an influence on member design and so must be decided even prior to the design of the structural system and design of members. The recommendations derived from these and other studies vary from extremely light to extremely heavy. Aspect ratios of common beam sizes: Single Double Triple 2x6 3. •Decks with longitudinal post-tensioning have proven to be very durable 11 LONG TERM PERFORMANCE EXAMPLE I-84/Route 8 Interchange –Waterbury, CT 12 PROJECT EXAMPLE •Curved structure (straight beams) •6 Span bridge with continuous spans •Single lane •Pretensioned transversely and post tensioned longitudinally •42 Day construction. anchored by means of wedges to the anchorage plates at the ends. precast concrete slab, reinforced concrete flat slab and post-tensioned concrete flat slab. 1 Effect of depth on Strength 3. Friction & Wedge. In the past, there were a lot of national standards – for example, British or German DIN standards – and guidelines for testing provisions to which post-tensioning systems had to be subjected. 115 Chapter 7 Structural design IntroductIon Structural design is the methodical investigation of the stability, strength and rigidity of structures. behavior of the software has not changed for this example. Post-tensioned concrete can be thinner and longer. Enviado por. This volume applies these Recommendations to eight different worked examples of concrete structures, varying from simple beams to silo construction, flat slab design, incremental launching of bridge structures and other methods of bridge design and construction. 3 Prestressed Flat Slabs and Plates Prestressed flat slabs and plates have been developed mainly in Australia and the USA over the last 30 years. For residential construction, tendons at 48 inches on center are common. Pre-tensioning vs. The equivalent thickness of solid walls and slabs with flat surfaces is the actual. Krauser April 6, 2007 General Technologies, Inc. - For larger spans and live loads, flat slabs with column head drops or flares (Fig 18), slabs with main beams in both directions (Fig 19) or waffle slabs (Fig 20) are used. Status: Under Construction Following the successful design and construction of Capital Fort Tower, Strukto was awarded as Structural. For the study of post-tensioned slab and beams a case study of a multistory office building (G+4) is taken and it is designed by four cases, the post-tensioned flat slab, posttensioned beams and. The main objective of this paper is to give a review on the response and behavioural properties of Post-tensioned flat slab during earthquake and compare with normal flat slab. Complete Phase 1 Report User's Manual for Standard Details. Post-tensioning is used for the last decades for different concrete elements such as slabs, beams, walls and mat foundations. This was designed and ana-lysed using both post tensioned and conventional re-inforced concrete slabs with the concrete strength of 32 MPa. Bolt threads are cold-rolled with special threading for fatigue loading. Enviado por. In the past, there were a lot of national standards – for example, British or German DIN standards – and guidelines for testing provisions to which post-tensioning systems had to be subjected. This lesson covers materials, methods and techniques associated with concrete formwork design and construction for walls (slab formwork design will be covered in. The slab panels are lifted to the top of the column and then moved downwards to the. The purpose of this publication is to widen the understanding of post-tensioned floor construction and show the considerable benefits which include minimum storey heights, rapid construction, economy, maximum design flexibility, minimum number of columns, optimum clear spans, joint-free, crack-free. 75 w DL = 0. Two-way Flat Plate with Drop Panels Example. DESIGN OF FLAT SLABS. Pre-tensioning is accomplished by stressing wires or strands, called tendons, to predetermined amount by stretching them between two anchorages prior to placing concrete as shown in fig. 8; slab Sl-2 +14. 3-04 RC-SL-001. 5 includes the structural changes in PTI's DC10. Approved by the former FIP Commission 3 'Practical Design' and the FIP Council, it is hoped that these recommendations will facilitate the correct design of post-tensioned slabs and. slab is poured integrally with beams 2. From the barrel design tables, the top slab thickness is found to be 8 1/2 inches. View Flat Slab Design PPTs online, safely and virus-free! Many are downloadable. com / 714‐767‐1313 Kevin Peacock Regional Manager kevin. 30 Afternoon Tea 3. 6 Methodsofanalysisofflat slabs 279 12. KDOT currently has standards for reinforced concrete haunched slabs from 12 m (39 ft) to 22 m (72 ft) center span range. Rebar reinforcement in this case is technically allowed by code but in our experience, a properly designed post-tensioned concrete slab will minimize cracking due to shrinkage. Enviado por. 1 - INTRODUCTION In post-tensioned floor slab construction, the placement of post-tensioning tendons and associated nonprestressed reinforcement does not strictly follow the practice of nonprestressed slabs. For a 2x1 panel, the value for a one-way panel should be used and values interpolated for intermediate proportions. Use the download button below or simple online reader. It has bays 30' o. * Completion of bottom reinforcement with appropriate Dia of bar and with equal spacing. Slab post-tensioning systems page 7 / 38 3. 00 m L2 = 6. Slabs are classified into 16 types. The inherent ability of PT (post-tensioning) to balance a portion of this load allows the design to work with a thinner concrete section compared to a conventional podium slab. Any misalignment of duct shall be rectified. , personal communication (email) with Nolan, S. office tower utilizes 10" post-tensioned concrete flat plate slabs supported by reinforced concrete columns and two C-shaped special reinforced concrete shear wall cores. For the application of design procedure an office building is considered as a case study. The easiest is a slab supported by good dirt – and a new one at that. 15m and thickness of 200mm located above the theater room. I'm trying to do a quick check of the capacity of an existing building. jackj_182073983. Post-tension Flat Slab Design Example. Construction Aspects of Post-Tensioned Flat Slab Guided by- Prof. Design and analyze spliced post-tensioned precast/prestressed bridge girders, cast-in-place (CIP) post-tensioned concrete slabs, and multi-span conventional prestressed/precast bridge girders with or without post-tensioning. INTRODUCTION. The file extension - PDF and ranks to the Documents category. Pre-tensioning vs. It was actually the widespread use of the “post-tensioned” slab-on-ground which induced this interest in design procedure and in many studies of reported slab failures. technique General applications of prestressing What is PT flat slab & its Types Construction aspects &materials Used. anchorage seating) losses on the effective post-tensioning force in a strand. Two way PT Flat Slab Systems. Does anyone know of any good sources for hand calculations for a two-way post tensioned slab? I have PCA Notes 318-08 and a time saving design aid I found online. , Design Fundamentals of Post-Tensioned Concrete Floors, Post-Tensioning Institute, Phoenix, AZ, 1999) Figure 3: Tendon profile of a continuous post-tensioned beam. Share yours for free!. 00 m L1 = 6. xls RCC52 Column Chart generation. DESIGN OF SLABS-ON-GROUND 360R-3 A4. A post-tensioned prestressed banded flat slab floor system for an office complex is shown in figure. View example in PDF format. 1 NOTATION Area Of column or area of effective column head Area of steel in tension Effective width of slab for transfer of moment to edge column Size of a rectangular column in x-direction Size of a rectangular column in y-direction Effective depth of tensile reinforcement Depth of column head Characteristic. 1 Introduction. Figure 7: Post-tensioned foundation slab Figure 9: Post-tensioned facade elements Figure 8: Post-tensioned cantilevered building. A new head office for Deutsche Post World Net is currently under construction in Bonn's former government district, south of the building commonly known as the "Langer Eugen". Slab Reinforcement. The insulation on the bottom might work if the whole area of the slab is covered by conditioned spaces. txt) or read online for free. 202 CAD Drawings for Category: 03 38 00 - Post-Tensioned Concrete. E-Mail [email protected] The design of post-tensioned flat slab can be done by using load balancing and equivalent frame method. Since rebar costs much more than concrete, efficient engineering design minimizes rebar use. It has executed a number of post-tensioned buildings, bridges and water tanks structures in the UAE. Start studying Building Tech II - Exam I - Precast, Prestressed, and Post-Tensioned Concrete. 2 Applications 70 (4. • A slab strip of unit width is analysed using simple beam theory. PT slabs offer the thinnest slab type, as concrete is worked to its strengths, mostly being kept in compression. 12: BS 8110 if the following conditions applied. Does anyone know of any good sources for hand calculations for a two-way post tensioned slab? I have PCA Notes 318-08 and a time saving design aid I found online. The vast majority of post-tensioning tendons used in these slabs have been unbonded. Friction & Wedge. The strength and durability of concrete depend chiefly on the amount of water used. The execution of the design will be explained with reference. 6 Specifications) Annex: Specification example 39 3 Post-tensioned floors 3. The opening can be framed with a double 2x8 header. 17 Concrete Structures at UMass. face of the column as for flat plates, plates. This is a particularly a big problem in the post tension slab, column footings, flat plates and flat slabs. For this, the concrete slab is tensioned with a process called pre-stressing and the slab of concrete which comes out after this process is known. Stiffness and strength of the. Post-tensioned (PT) concrete floors are now widely used in the UK, particularly for high-rise buildings. * Check level difference; pour strip location, slab thickness and drop panel depth before erection of bottom reinforcement. The equivalent thickness of solid walls and slabs with flat surfaces is the actual. ADAPT-Floor Pro is three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element Software for Analysis and Design of Concrete and Post-Tensioned Floor and Foundation Systems. Floor System: Post-tensioned slab with drop panels for the basements, post-tensioned flat plate for the superstructure; TBA: 94 000 sq. pt-structures. Creating Openings in UnbOnded pOst-tensiOned slabs By Don Kline i t is often necessary to create openings in existing concrete slabs. Read Free Design Of Prestressed Concrete Flat Slabs StructuresDownload Code Design of Prestressed Concrete Flat Slabs. anchorage seating) losses on the effective post-tensioning force in a strand. Applications & benefits. Analysis & design of two-way slabs supported on edges and flat slabs 03/07/2019 (Week 5) Flat slabs (Part 2) and Punching shear Flat plates and flat slab design (Part 2): equivalent frame method - RCB Chap 4 Punching shear Analysis and design of flat slabs and punching strength of slabs 10/07/2019 (Week 6) Non-teaching week for all courses 17. Introduction Post-tensioned concrete large-span slabs were used as floors in the buildings in the United States, Australia, Hong Kong and later in Europe a few decades ago. PT slabs provide the leaner slab type, as concrete functions to its strengths, mostly being maintained in compression. Example of a Parking Deck Beam Design. The structure is checked both at serviceability and ultimate limit states. They cannot be used where you have a lot of fill dirt under the home (such as homesites where a lot of holes have been filled) because the concrete will tend to crack. , 2014) is capable of analyzing PT slab only for one story. The column tends to punch through the slab in Flat Slabs, which can be treated by three methods: Using a drop panel and a column capital in flat slab. A steel element used to impart pre-stress to concrete when the element is tensioned. Fundamentals of Post-Tensioned Concrete Design for Buildings - Part One Part Three continues with the study of two-way, post-tensioned slab systems, including Fundamentals of Post-Tensioned Concrete Design for Buildings - Part One A SunCam online continuing education course. Pre-tensioning vs. Design floors and foundations reliably and efficiently, saving time and money, and overcoming the most. Au 2, Jing Li 3 and Neil. 11 End blocks in post-tensioned members 103 4. Shear wall footings have a minimum 28‐day strength of 4000 psi. The use of post-tensioning commonly is applied to "flat slab" or "flat plate" construction in multilevel structures. Engineers who specialize in post-tensioning design and who are comfortable with large and complex projects benefit most from the rigorous method. Structural engineers design concrete slabs with post-tension cables to obtain greater span lengths between supporting columns and to allow thinner slabs. 9 Quiz 1 – from 9:00 to 10:30 am 5 30/03/2017 Flat plates and flat slab design; equivalent frame method (Part 2) RCB Chap 4. 9 WWF on a vapor barrier on 4 inches of granular subbase. anchored by means of wedges to the anchorage plates at the ends. Engineers who specialize in post-tensioning design and who are comfortable with large and complex projects benefit most from the rigorous method. design situations. The advantages are many, when compared to non post-tensioned systems, and include thinner slabs, lighter structures, lower floor-to-floor heights, less mild reinforcing steel, and less short and long term deflections. • Design of Post-Tensioned Floor Systems in High-Seismic Zones • Construction Detailing • Design of Post-Tensioned Slabs using 2D Strip Method Software • Advanced Design of Post-Tensioned Slabs using 3D Finite Element Method Software • Workflow for Integrated Design of Concrete Buildings with Post-Tensioned Slabs. com / 949‐698‐2740. loading-40 to 48 normalloading-34 to 42 heavy loading-28 to 36 ACI Committee 318 'Building Code Requirements For Reinforced. Design for vehicle axle loads 4. technique General applications of prestressing What is PT flat slab & its Types Construction aspects &materials Used. The flat slab is a two-way reinforced concrete slab that usually does not have beams and girders, and the loads are transferred directly to the supporting concrete columns.  If slab supported by four side of beams or walls, the slab is considered one- way if ratio of long span (Ly) to short span (Lx) greater than 2. Joint efforts by researchers, design engineers and For example, a post-tensioned 10 in cost between reinforced and post-tensioned concrete flat slabs. From the barrel design tables, the top slab thickness is found to be 8 1/2 inches. Construction Aspects of Post-Tensioned Flat Slab Guided by- Prof. Gabriel Tower") 5 Post-tensioned transfer slabs and beams 5. Mulla Amanulla Liyakatali Session Outline Quick review of basic prestressing. The column tends to punch through the slab in Flat Slabs, which can be treated by three methods: Using a drop panel and a column capital in flat slab. The use of post-tensioning has extended span lengths up to 92 ft. The results indicate that Post Tensioned flat slabs are cheaper than the RCC slab systems. The strength and durability of concrete depend chiefly on the amount of water used. IS: 1343 gives the criteria for post tensioning but the design steps is still vague. ADAPT-PT Standalone program for analysis and design of post-tensioned slab systems and beam frames: one-way and two-way slabs, flat slabs, slabs with drop panels, waffle slabs, joist slabs, beams (L, T, rectangular, I). A post-tensioned prestressed banded flat slab floor system for an office complex is shown in figure. The additional time and effort expended when using this method are offset by the economy in design. on the design methodology. Other applications of fixed section elements include structures such as water tanks and post-tensioned slabs on-ground. 5 inches, was anticipated. The post tensioning allows the slab to be thinner. 1 Effect of depth on Strength 3. Economically design post-tensioned and reinforced concrete floors including slabs, mats, and rafts, with exceptional visibility into compliance, efficiency, and practicality. Download TR43 Post-tensioned concrete floors Design handbook (2nd by Concrete Society Working Party PDF Appendices to the document offer beneficial more information. Recommended Design Parameters. 4 Suggested Laboratory Testing Program. Duct for tendons shall be observed during concreting. The first edition of the Post-Tensioning Manual was published in 1972, and as of the time of this writing (2018), they are up to their 6th edition. What are post-tensioned slab-on-ground foundations? A post-tensioned slab-on-ground foundation is simply a ground-supported concrete slab foundation that is reinforced with flexible cables that are tensioned after the concrete hardens. 1 Allowable average stresses in flat slabs, (two-way spanning), analysed using the equivalent frame method – Report No. This design example uses the term “podium slab” which, while not included in the 2006 International Building Code (IBC) or 2007 California Building Code (CBC), is commonly used in the building industry. 9 Loss of prestress due to friction 101 4. Corners of the two-way slab lift up if the slab is not cast monolithically with the supports (walls/beams). - For larger spans and live loads, flat slabs with column head drops or flares (Fig 18), slabs with main beams in both directions (Fig 19) or waffle slabs (Fig 20) are used. Floor System: The typical floor system used is a 9 inch, post‐tensioned concrete slab having a minimum 28‐day strength of 5000 psi. View example in PDF Format (Design Example 1) Download example as a Mathcad Workbook (Zip) Cast-in-Place Flat Slab Bridge Design. Designing the shape of the PT layout and specifying the right system is a vital stage in the process and requires sound engineering consideration in order to maximize the benefits for all the stakeholders in a project. Introduction to Concrete Formwork and Vertical Formwork Design Overview The first lesson provides an overview on the basic structural wood design as it applies to concrete formwork. My query which i hope somebody could help me with is whether or not to consider the slab as a flat slab in the design, or otherwise. Because post-tensioning was limited to smaller beams and slabs, the alternate method of pretensioning became the industry standard after the early years. One Hundred Twenty major categories of fully editable and scalable drawings and details in AutoCad Format. April 10, 2015. 8-04)," third edition, Post-T ensioning Insti - tute, Farmington Hills, MI, 82 pp. Spreadsheets can do basic calculations such as cost estimates, schedule and cost control, and markup estimation, as well as structural calculations of reactions, stresses, strains. Material Properties 3. The slab panels are lifted to the top of the column and then moved downwards to the. Post-tensioning concrete increases the many benefits associated with a concrete framed building. Architectural Benefits. design more post-tensioned structures. Design strips (per grid-line or support conditions), banded and distributed tendon layout, tendon profiles, and jacking options (per force percentage, stress value, or hyperstatic analysis) may all be user-defined or automated (with. Generally, post-tensioned (PT) slabs belong to flat slabs, band beam and slabs or ribbed slabs. Use of PT slabs results in small sections, better serviceability,. 2 Determinationofmaximumeccentricity 85 5. • When zd is determined, the prestressing force required to balance an. Cement is a fine gray powder, and once mixed with water, sand, gravel or stone becomes concrete. Cables are arranged as indicated by the engineer and chaired to run through the center of the slab. Design Fundamentals of Post-Tensioned Concrete Slabs. com 1733 Woodside Road, Suite 220, Redwood City, California, 94061, USA, Tel: (650) 306-2400 Fax: (650) 306 2401. The use of post-tensioning commonly is applied to “flat slab” or “flat plate” construction in multilevel structures. Sog_project_example_11 030206 MNL 424 STRUCTURAL CALCULATION FOR THE POST-TENSIONED SLAB-ON-GROUND OF SUNSHINE PROJECT California March 2006 Reference: SOG USER MANUAL, ADAPT Corp. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE Washington, DC 20590 202-366-4000. Bolt threads are cold-rolled with special threading for fatigue loading. In slabs with unbonded post-tensioning, the protection of the tendons against corrosion is of extreme importance. Floors are supported by wood stud bearing walls, and utilize plywood sheathing for lateral support to resist wind or seismic loads. Managing Director, Engineering & Professional Development Post-Tensioning Institute At the end of this program you should have an understanding of:. Figure 2: Post-Tensioned slab. PT: flat slab post-tensioned concrete RC1: flat slab reinforced concrete RC2: slab with drop beams all in reinforced concrete Using the same design assumptions, the options were designed to the British Standards to meet equivalent serviceability, ultimate state, and deflection limits (set to 10mm at all façade perimeters). Free-body diagrams are important tools to visually display the loads. A new head office for Deutsche Post World Net is currently under construction in Bonn's former government district, south of the building commonly known as the "Langer Eugen". 00 m L1 = 6. Awni Alkhteeb. xls RCC42 Post tensioned Analysis & Design. 3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement (Torsion Included) 12-23. By simplifying slab reinforcement at column locations and eliminating column capitals, stirrup cages, or I -beam shear heads, they enable efficient design and rapid. Developers, architects, engineers, contractors, educators and. The slab on grade is reinforced with 6x6‐W2. * Check level difference; pour strip location, slab thickness and drop panel depth before erection of bottom reinforcement. Equilibrium frame method. Long-span floor systems are also included in the discussion. Engineers who specialize in post-tensioning design and who are comfortable with large and complex projects benefit most from the rigorous method. Design Load The combination of factored loads which the structural. Enviado por. Lateral Wind Loads Sum horizontal loads (Flat) on the elevated structure. most effective in designing of flat slabs. Gabriel Tower") 5 Post-tensioned transfer slabs and beams 5. 8; slab Sl-2 +14. A new head office for Deutsche Post World Net is currently under construction in Bonn's former government district, south of the building commonly known as the "Langer Eugen". 5-12 publication: Standard Requirements for Design and Analysis of Shallow Post-Tensioned Concrete Foundations on Expansive Soils. 5 billion ft2 of two-way post-tensioned slabs with unbonded tendons in service. For example, to a stronger concrete slab means you can build with less concrete but still retain the same structural properties as a much larger slab without post-tensioning. Flat slabs design is appropriate for most floor situations and is also suitable for irregular column layouts, curved floor shapes, ramps etc. Does anyone know of any good sources for hand calculations for a two-way post tensioned slab? I have PCA Notes 318-08 and a time saving design aid I found online. design of post-tensioned concrete structures. nately, specific design provisions for shear strength and flexural strength of unbonded prestressed slabs are not pro-vided in the present ACI Code (ACI 318-71). com / 949‐698‐2740. Details Language English Duration 13 Mins Format. 12: BS 8110 if the following conditions applied. 33 cm Apply ts = 18 cm Concrete to Strand covering = 3cm Concrete to Steel covering = 1. Development of the Design Approach The primary design issues for stiffened slabs on grade are the sizing of the beams that stiffened the slab and the spacing of the beams. Tendon Anchor. For example, to a stronger concrete slab means you can build with less concrete but still retain the same structural properties as a much larger slab without post-tensioning. design example title page no. 72 Durable Post-tensioned. PT Slab sample details (Download a zipped set - 13 sheets; Microstation ". and Design of Residential Slabs-on-Ground, BRAB Report #33. 15m and depth of 200mm directly above the theater hall. 75(100 psf) = 75 psf Cover Requirements (2-hour fire rating, assume carbonate aggregate) IBC 2003 Restrained slabs = 3/4” bottom Unrestrained slabs = 11/2” bottom = 3/4” top TIME SAVING DESIGN AIDS Page 2 of 9 Two-Way Post-Tensioned Design. A 2 2Area 2 A' c 2 2 Post-Tensioned Concrete Design Table 1-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code cp Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section, in A g Gross area of concrete, in A 2 l Total area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion, in A o Area enclosed by the shear flow path, sq-in A oh Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed. For example in tests on post-tensioned lift slabs, the great majority of the specimens developed the full moment capacity at the perimeter of the slab collars [20]. anchorage seating) losses on the effective post-tensioning force in a strand. Precast concrete floor slabs are lifted from the ground up to the final height by lifting cranes. Figure 3 - This is a detail from the original 1957 engineering plan for the post-tensioned slab design for Bridge 9065, originally located on Highway 61 just south of Winona, but now replaced. The primary purpose. 68m, having the span of 11. 1 Allowable. For the novice post-tensioned concrete designer, these examples covered the entire PT design process, including how to calculate prestress loss and its effect on ultimate strength design. Deflecüon limits Prestressing in post-tensioned slabs fundamentally influences the behaviour of the structure under service loads. com / 949‐698‐2740. Continuous Unbonded Post-Tensioned Members: Quantifying Strand Stress Increase by Philip D. Managing Director, Engineering & Professional Development Post-Tensioning Institute At the end of this program you should have an understanding of:. xls RCC14 Crack Width. and Design of Residential Slabs-on-Ground, BRAB Report #33. Spreadsheets can do basic calculations such as cost estimates, schedule and cost control, and markup estimation, as well as structural calculations of reactions, stresses, strains. 2 Sandwich-Class Housing. jackj_182073983. This type of construction is also referred to as an uppermost "structural slab" or "transfer slab" (both can have a slab and. Pouring concrete shall be done when the reinforcement and Post-tensioning components are completely installed. Suspended floors can be constructed in three basic forms:-. 1 Design Post tensioned and Reinforced Concrete slab The typical office structure investigated comprised of a 10 story building. Post tensioning flat slab are not complex where the construction technique, structure behavior and design are all simple. Design a Post‐Tensioned Flat Slab Design a post‐tensioned flat slab in the East‐West direction for a 3‐bay by 3‐bay structure specified below. 23/jul/2018 - Generally, post-tensioned (PT) slabs belong to flat slabs, band beam and slabs or ribbed slabs. Note: Further guidance can be found in Technical Report No. The design specifications used in these examples is the AASHTO LRFD Bridge design Specifications. , personal communication (email) with Nolan, S. The vast majority of post-tensioning tendons used in these slabs have been unbonded. Post-tensioning is simply a way to reinforce in a more active way. Two-way Flat Plate with Drop Panels Example. Before a post-tension slab is poured, high-strength steel strands or cables, called tendons, are laid in a tight grid. Finally, an example of a flat slab floor system is pre-sented to illustrate the practice. The fire resistance (based on the heat transmission end point) of a concrete member or assembly is found by calculating the equivalent thickness for the assembly and then finding the corresponding rating in the charts and tables provided. In the United States, for several decades, we've used post-tensioned, pre-stressing steel installed in a flat profile, in the middle of the concrete slab to squeeze that slab together and increase. Post-tensioning concrete increases the many benefits associated with a concrete framed building. of Post-Tensioned flat slab systems with respect to reinforced concrete flat slab system. Overview of design of Post-tensioned Flat slab structures. qxp 10/17/05 2:44 PM Page 3. 1 - INTRODUCTION In post-tensioned floor slab construction, the placement of post-tensioning tendons and associated nonprestressed reinforcement does not strictly follow the practice of nonprestressed slabs. Comparisons of the designs for economy, strength and serviceability. These categories are: Service Stress Analysis, Ultimate Moment Strength and Ultimate Beam. The best way to ensure this doesn't happen is to educate your construction teams on the best practices for designing and constructing post-tensioned slabs. Program for analysis and design of reinforced concrete and steel structures made up of: columns, walls and shear walls; concrete, steel and composite beams; joist floor slabs (generic, reinforced, prestressed, in situ, steel, and open- web), hollow core plates, composite slabs, waffle slabs and flat slabs; mat or pad foundations, pile caps or foundation beams; Integrated CYPE 3D jobs (steel. Introduction Post-tensioned concrete large-span slabs were used as floors in the buildings in the United States, Australia, Hong Kong and later in Europe a few decades ago. They require a specific level of thickness to maintain their strength - usually at least 4 inches for a slab-on-grade foundation. I'm trying to do a quick check of the capacity of an existing building. This list is compiled from field notes and observations. The corresponding mechanical properties of the concrete flat slabs are tested to verify the feasibility of using CFRP sheets to apply a prestress. 1 introduction 4 2 design example of a post-tensioned composite bridge girder 7 3 design of a two way post tensioned slab 35 4 circular prestressing 44 5 references 47. 7 Example ofthe design offlat slab 283 12. The structure is checked both at serviceability and ultimate limit states. total moments developed in post-tensioned slab sections were found to be misleading in identifying the contribution of different portions of the post-tensioned slab to collapse resistance. The benefits of faster construction schedules while decreasing the quantity of concrete and rebar saves money. It has bays 30' o. But before we proceed, let us first delimit our discussion to conventional reinforced concrete slabs (beam-slab or flat slab systems to be specific). Because of the brittle nature of shear failures, conservative design is necessary. The moisture content of the fill at the time of compaction should be within +2% of the optimum value. Krauser April 6, 2007 General Technologies, Inc. Concrete Post-tension Slab Checklist copyright 2007 Marshall Hansen Rev. Precast post-tensioned segmental construction is defined as a method of construction for bridges, build- ings, tanks, silos, cooling towers, tunnels and other structures in which primary load carrying mem- bers are composed of precast con- crete segments post-tensioned to- gether. 8 Flat Plate Analysis 8. 715m long, and it is supporting a blockwork load at 1. Dirk Bondy, S. All relevant post-tensioning design documentation should cross reference to this CARES Model Specification 4th edition and in particular to the requirements of Clause 1(a). Two-way post-tensioned slabs have been an extremely popular floor-framing system in American building construction. This course is intended to be an introductory course for structural engineers new to post-tensioned. The flat slab is a two-way reinforced concrete slab that usually does not have beams and girders, and the loads are transferred directly to the supporting concrete columns. All vertical support removal scenarios showed a good agreement with the UFC guidelines except for the cases of removal of the interior column in the ground floor, edge column removal in (ground, 5th & 10th. 00 m L2 = 6. Because post-tensioning was limited to smaller beams and slabs, the alternate method of pretensioning became the industry standard after the early years. Gardner Publication: Symposium Paper Volume: 232 Issue: Appears on pages(s): 193-208 Keywords: continuous flat plates; prestressed; punching shear;structural design Date: 10/1/2005 Abstract: Flat slabs are an economical structural system for medium height residentialand office buildings. Издательство - The Aberdeen Group. The following review concludes with a numerical design example, giving the material quantities which are needed for a frame of a typi­cal parking structure. The basic objective in structural analysis and design is to produce a structure capable of resisting all applied loads without failure during its intended life. 1 Effect of depth on Strength 3. Also, it is permissible to design a slab with a bonded post-tensioning system having neither top nor bottom non-prestressed reinforcement. A post-tensioned prestressed banded flat slab floor system for an office complex is shown in figure. bearing capacity is too low 1. Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. The post-tensioning of structures (and particularly of masonry structures) has been available as a technique for a long time, for example, in the tying together of ageing buildings with iron rods, the force in which instance is generated by the cooling of the rods which were clamped whilst hot. 5” concrete cover for unrestrained members and 0. ) Precast/Prestressed Slabs Beams (1950's) 4. Usually a sign in the garage or stamp in the slab will indicate if your home has a post tension slab. 2 Precompression from Prestressing. Example: wire, cable, bar, rod, strand. All vertical support removal scenarios showed a good agreement with the UFC guidelines except for the cases of removal of the interior column in the ground floor, edge column removal in (ground, 5th & 10th. Design preliminaries - choice of section - trial section dimensions. Results of the PLPAK are also validated through several examples published in several journal. However, much more slander slabs can be constructed using post-tensioned concrete. 2 Resultsofanalysis for deadplus live loadpattern 1 288. 1 Notations 13-1. POST TENSION SLAB DESIGN [AUGUST 2014] [HISTORY] in cost between reinforced and post-tensioned concrete flat slabs also increases. as BBR VT Plastic Ducts. All three slabs were designed in post-tensioning technology, prestressed with unbounded tendons: slab Sl-1 +9.  Slab are considered as one-way if the main reinforcement is designed only in one direction. Another popular system is one-way slab and beam floor systems that are cast-in-place, Figs. flat plate construction - floor slab is designed and reinforced to transfer loads to the columns, which do not exceed 25' spacing. As per Indian code we are using cube strength but in international standards cylindrical are used which gives higher strength compared to cube. Mgt), MIEAust, CPEng SUMMARY This paper outlines the major advantages of the use of post-tensioning in building structures. Anyway, application for the post-tensioning slabs system include: Low to high rise residential and commercial buildings Industrial floor slabs on the ground. When concrete is poured around the stressing bonds before pressure is released, it creates tension; when it is released the steel's tendency to try to resume its original shape adds a compressive force to the concrete laterally, giving it strength to span distances. Stay tuned for full course. 30 Afternoon Tea 3. The following graph in Figure 13 was made to show the shear distribution along the post-tensioned slab. INSTANTLY DOWNLOAD A SAMPLE CAD COLLECTION Search for Drawings Browse 1000's of 2D CAD Drawings, Specifications, Brochures, and more. They can be made from conventional or post-tensioned reinforced concrete, or from autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) (see Autoclaved aerated concrete). I'm trying to do a quick check of the capacity of an existing building. Material Properties 3. These are a perfect starting point for modification to meet your particular needs or just to use as is without changes. In the former,. You make the assembly out of three pieces – a footing, a stem wall and the “flat plate” slab part. 2 Effect of depth on Deflection Other Deflection considerations 3. This is also called the "RC Designer" mode. Design strips (per grid-line or support conditions), banded and distributed tendon layout, tendon profiles, and jacking options (per force percentage, stress value, or hyperstatic analysis) may all be user-defined or automated (with. flat plate construction - floor slab is designed and reinforced to transfer loads to the columns, which do not exceed 25' spacing. An overview is presented on the application and design of such floor systems, and the commonly selected. For the analysis of post-tensioned slab, a finite element analysis program ADAPT (ADAPT Corporation, 2015) was used. Pre-tensioning is accomplished by stressing wires or strands, called tendons, to predetermined amount by stretching them between two anchorages prior to placing concrete as shown in fig. PT slabs provide the leaner slab type, as concrete functions to its strengths, mostly being maintained in compression. This Report does not cover the design of prestressed post-tensioned slabs; for such slabs reference should be made to Concrete Society Technical Report 43, Post-tensioned concrete floors: Design handbook. Introduction to Concrete Formwork and Vertical Formwork Design Overview The first lesson provides an overview on the basic structural wood design as it applies to concrete formwork. The equivalent thickness of solid walls and slabs with flat surfaces is the actual. xls RCC21 Subframe Analysis. Openings may be large, such as those required for a new stairway, or small core penetrations, such as those required for plumbing risers. Bolt threads are cold-rolled with special threading for fatigue loading. The slab span was varied to evaluate four. For example, a posttensioned 10. There is still at least one example of this type of superstructure under traffic in. * Fixing the block out to casting and wrapping it with OPP tape. Prestressed, pre-tensioned, tendons are tensioned by a jack without any concrete. For industrial and office buildings with large spans, application of post-tensioned, (PT), concrete floors is competitive to reinforced concrete. 9 WWF on a vapor barrier on 4 inches of granular subbase. 00 m L1 = 6. Flexural Design Example. Some foundations used for light buildings on shrink-swell soils. Material Properties 3. For the floor systems with beams, only the ones with band beams are shown in Table 3. This spreadsheet program provides for the design and analysis of post-tensioned concrete one-way beam and slab systems and two-way flat plate slab systems. Post-Tensioning for Two-Way Flat Plate Construction Figure 2: Tributary slab widths for equivalent frames (Aalami, B. For example, a 5-inch slab can support a 5000-pound post load without additional concrete or rebar. Friction & Wedge. Unbonded post-tensioning. Post-tensioning has been in practice since the early 20th century, but only recently have companies really taken advantage of its structural and financial benefits. Post-Tower post-tensioned with DYWIDAG Strand Tendons Construction of the new Group head office for Deutsche Post World Net, Bonn, Germany. 3 Post tensioned slab on ground) 4. Post Tensioned Concrete Floors in Multi Storey Buildings. 60 m2 Floor to Floor Height = 4. Sog_project_example_11 030206 MNL 424 STRUCTURAL CALCULATION FOR THE POST-TENSIONED SLAB-ON-GROUND OF SUNSHINE PROJECT California March 2006 Reference: SOG USER MANUAL, ADAPT Corp. As a result, even though post-tensioning is meant to help prevent a slab from cracking, the slab can still crack if the tensioning process is done incorrectly. The cost of the concrete, including placing and finishing, usually. Capabilities include: (1) support bonded and unbonded tendons;. Two way PT Flat Slab Systems. Mgt), MIEAust, CPEng SUMMARY This paper outlines the major advantages of the use of post-tensioning in building structures. Chapter 13 Design for NZ 3101:06. Material Properties 3. In California, post-tensioned floor slabs are the primary choice in concrete floor construction. loading-40 to 48 normalloading-34 to 42 heavy loading-28 to 36 ACI Committee 318 'Building Code Requirements For Reinforced. 30 Afternoon Tea 3. Post-Tensioned Concrete. Two-way post-tensioned slabs have been an extremely popular floor-framing system in American building construction. 'FIP Recommendations for the Design of Flat-Slabs in Post-tensioned Concrete', 19802 floors- 42 or 48* roofs - 48 or 52* Concrete Society Technical Report n"25 'Post-tensioned Flat-Slab Design Handbook', 19843 light. Default Recent. 5 Fire resistance - 2. Leeward reaction equals -48 lb/lf. 8 Loss of prestress, other than friction losses 99 4. I'm trying to do a quick check of the capacity of an existing building. Design for vehicle axle loads 4. Long concrete slabs elevated above the ground are limited in length due to the danger of cracking. Secondly, using an index of one for a 7. Program for analysis and design of reinforced concrete and steel structures made up of: columns, walls and shear walls; concrete, steel and composite beams; joist floor slabs (generic, reinforced, prestressed, in situ, steel, and open- web), hollow core plates, composite slabs, waffle slabs and flat slabs; mat or pad foundations, pile caps or foundation beams; Integrated CYPE 3D jobs (steel. • A slab strip of unit width is analysed using simple beam theory. 5*square root of equivalent cylindrical strength value of concrete grade at the mid-span bottom fiber zone. xls RCC14 Crack Width. D foundation analysis and design examples The leeward reaction is calculated by either summing vertical loads or by summing moments about the windward foundation wall. They cannot be used where you have a lot of fill dirt under the home (such as homesites where a lot of holes have been filled) because the concrete will tend to crack. The DriftTrak is sized to fit above or under the high-strength tendon reinforcing at edge of slab. For example, a flat slab spanning 25 feet without post-tensioning would typically have a thickness of 8 to 9 inches. The purpose of this publication is to widen the understanding of post-tensioned floor construction and show the considerable benefits which include minimum storey heights, rapid construction, economy, maximum design flexibility, minimum number of columns, optimum clear spans, joint-free, crack-free. Slabs are classified into 16 types. 5 includes the structural changes in PTI's DC10. The National Annex to Eurocode 2 has been implemented for Denmark, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, and Sweden for reinforced and post-tensioned concrete design using “Eurocode 2-2004”. In the United States, for several decades, we've used post-tensioned, pre-stressing steel installed in a flat profile, in the middle of the concrete slab to squeeze that slab together and increase. thick if they are flat enough to meet the gap requirements under the column. 60 m2 Floor to Floor Height = 4. Aspect ratios of common beam sizes: Single Double Triple 2x6 3. This is also called the "RC Designer" mode. Because of the brittle nature of shear failures, conservative design is necessary. Post tensioning flat slab are not complex where the construction technique, structure behavior and design are all simple. Anyway, application for the post-tensioning slabs system include: Low to high rise residential and commercial buildings Industrial floor slabs on the ground. What are post-tensioned slab-on-ground foundations? A post-tensioned slab-on-ground foundation is simply a ground-supported concrete slab foundation that is reinforced with flexible cables that are tensioned after the concrete hardens. "On yield line estimates of the punching strength of full panel unbonded post-tensioned flat slabs at internal columns", ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 5 billion ft2 of two-way post-tensioned slabs with unbonded tendons in service. 4 Edge-supportedtwo-wayspanningslab 272 12. The glossary is a. txt) or read online for free. Cost models were developed for a steel cellular composite frame and post-tensioned concrete band beam and. Post-tensioning in buildings is not limited to floor slabs. In addition to eliminating caulked joints, post-tensioning helps achieve watertightness by introducing a state of bi-axial compression in the slab, thereby controlling cracks. Slab design for column or wall loadings 6. Usually a sign in the garage or stamp in the slab will indicate if your home has a post tension slab. 8 4 23/03/2017 Flat plates and flat slab design; equivalent frame method (Part 1) RCB Chap 4 Sect 4. and Design of Residential Slabs-on-Ground, BRAB Report #33. By applying post tension, we increase the overall compression force in the cross sect. Figures 8 and 9 show the PT reinforcement layout plan for the specimens. Design of Prestressed Concrete Flat Slabs - Civil design of post-tensioned flat slab can be done by using load The concept of Page 8/28. The results indicate that Post Tensioned flat slabs are cheaper than the RCC slab systems. Издательство - The Aberdeen Group. Using a moment-area procedure to analyze slab-beam with step haunches, rotational stiffness, carry over, and fixed-end moments of a flat slab are formulated for flat slabs with capitals and/or drop panels. 'FIP Recommendations for the Design of Flat-Slabs in Post-tensioned Concrete', 19802 floors- 42 or 48* roofs - 48 or 52* Concrete Society Technical Report n"25 'Post-tensioned Flat-Slab Design Handbook', 19843 light. The post-tensioning system. This is a particularly a big problem in the post tension slab, column footings, flat plates and flat slabs. Analysis & design of two-way slabs supported on edges and flat slabs 03/07/2019 (Week 5) Flat slabs (Part 2) and Punching shear Flat plates and flat slab design (Part 2): equivalent frame method - RCB Chap 4 Punching shear Analysis and design of flat slabs and punching strength of slabs 10/07/2019 (Week 6) Non-teaching week for all courses 17. 4 Slabs 99 4. Engineers who specialize in post-tensioning design and who are comfortable with large and complex projects benefit most from the rigorous method. Darviche Haddad is a specialist post-tensioning sub-contractor, originally established in Lebanon, with more than 45 years experience in this field. practical framing layouts and formwork. [email protected] Advantages of Post Tension Slab 1. vci 0 100. Before a post-tension slab is poured, high-strength steel strands or cables, called tendons, are laid in a tight grid. 1 General equation for equivalent loads 90. The two-way slab is designed for both the directions as it bends in both directions. Figure 3 - This is a detail from the original 1957 engineering plan for the post-tensioned slab design for Bridge 9065, originally located on Highway 61 just south of Winona, but now replaced. The PT concrete is inherently fire resistant so there's no need to add fireproofing and a flat PT slab soffit makes it easier to coordinate services above ceilings. View Flat Slab Design PPTs online, safely and virus-free! Many are downloadable. Post-tensioning has been in practice since the early 20th century, but only recently have companies really taken advantage of its structural and financial benefits. The proposed opening cannot be made, because the wall is a loadbearing wall. A post-tensioned prestressed banded flat slab floor system for an office complex is shown in figure. The spacing between the perimeter columns and the core varies between 7 and 9 meters, so we are also contemplating the option of having a post-tensioned system, but this is perhaps irrelvant for this question. ess design of modular and prefabricated components that can be used for hospitals,. The opening can be framed with a double 2x8 header. Developers, architects, engineers, contractors, educators and. 0 m span will cost approximately 20% more. the thickness of the slab. We have given technical advice to lots of consultant regarding post tensioning suitable standards and designs, With a large specialist design and installation team with a well qualified local personal, we are able to complete a full range of design and installation solutions including: Flat slabs; Beam and slab; Ribbed slabs; Transfer structures. The punching and post-punching failure of an isolated and simply supported slab-column specimen is analytically evaluated. It was actually the widespread use of the "post-tensioned" slab-on-ground which induced this interest in design procedure and in many studies of reported slab failures. (Forces to the left are positive. Analysis of post-tensioned flat slabs Thickness of PT flat slabs is chosen as span/40 to 50 with span/45 as most commonly used value for two-way flat slabs and span/40 for one way slabs [ 6 ]. to have a minimal length. com 1733 Woodside Road, Suite 220, Redwood City, California, 94061, USA, Tel: (650) 306-2400 Fax: (650) 306 2401. A steel element used to impart pre-stress to concrete when the element is tensioned. Design of Prestressed Concrete Flat Slabs - Civil design of post-tensioned flat slab can be done by using load The concept of Page 8/28. In the general case, the design moments used for the. Joint efforts by researchers, design engineers and For example, a post-tensioned 10 in cost between reinforced and post-tensioned concrete flat slabs. Example: wire, cable, bar, rod, strand. The idea is simple, concrete is good in compression and bad in tension. Mulla Amanulla Liyakatali Session Outline Quick review of basic prestressing. Typically use monostrand tendons (typically composed is 7 wire strands). 75 hour lecture by K. In this post, we are going to show how we can analyse and design cantilever slabs subjected to floor load and block work load. 5 Flat slabs 276 12. SAFE is ideal for designing traditional and post-tensioned (PT) reinforced-concrete slab systems. The glossary is a. By stressing properly positioned high strength prestressing tendons with the help of Stressing Jack, TMG Post Tensioning System introduces constructive stress into the concrete structure, thus increasing overall productivity and usage efficiency of construction. A consistently increasing proportion of concrete floor slab systems in the U. A post-tensioned prestressed banded flat slab floor system for an office complex is shown in figure. Flat slabs design is appropriate for most floor situations and is also suitable for irregular column layouts, curved floor shapes, ramps etc. This means less concrete will be used. A more detailed guide to the design of PT floors can be found in The Concrete Society's Technical Report 43 (TR43): Post-tensioned concrete floors: Design handbook. This is also called the "RC Designer" mode. Five underlying features of post-. the thickness of the slab. I'm trying to do a quick check of the capacity of an existing building. When new projects anticipate the use of post-tensioned slabs, design criteria should be established, confirmed, and specified noting the maximum length of post-installed anchors (drilled anchors or shot pins) to prevent nicking or otherwise damaging a tendon. [email protected] By applying the provisions of Section M4. The tanks resting on ground like clear water reservoirs, settling tanks, aeration tanks etc. 75” concrete cover for restrained members. Learn new and interesting things. 0m from the fixed end. 4 Installation - 2. As shown in the beam example diagram, the tendons create lift to balance the imposed. as BBR VT Plastic Ducts. The execution of the design will be explained with reference. Two disadvantages of using post-tensioned reinforcing include misplacement and effects of cutting tensioned cables. The structure is checked both at serviceability and ultimate limit states. Post- Tension Tendon Installation and Grouting Manual 2013. The design of this floor system was done through Ram Concept following all ACI requirements. 2 Background When Eugene Freyssinet "invented" prestressed concrete it was considered to be an entirely new material - a material which did. In post-tensioned flat plate construction, post-tensioning tendons with variable eccentricity are used to apply such balanced loads throughout the length of the slabs. In Poland, post-tensioned floors had and still are obstructed path of development. Use of PT slabs results in small sections, better serviceability, durable structures and faster construction compared to. The requirement, V fg /V c ≤ 0. Design floors and foundations reliably and efficiently, saving time and money, and overcoming the most common concerns you face as a designer. Slabs are constructed to provide flat surfaces, usually horizontal in building floors, roofs, bridges, and other types of structures. Slabs - Design Strips. This course is intended to be an introductory course for structural engineers new to post-tensioned. Unbonded post-tensioning. Post-tension Flat Slab Design Example. Post-Tensioning Tendon Type Prestress Loss-PSI Slabs Beams & Joints Stress Relieved 270K Strand 30,000 35,000 Low Relaxation 270K Strand 15,000 20,000 Bars 20,000 25,000 The diagram on this slide illustrates the impact of friction and wedge set (i. * Marking of tendon in both live and dead end with marker. Because post-tensioning was limited to smaller beams and slabs, the alternate method of pretensioning became the industry standard after the early years. Joining link- https://www. Also the load-deflection curves suggest a. As the building foot print was approximately 140 m by 50 m and six storeys tall, this building is one of the largest post tensioned suspended slab buildings ever attempted in New Zealand. This is an important advantage because water, dirt and de-icer chemicals leaking through cracks or joints may make parts of a parking structure unusable or require costly. The punching and post-punching failure of an isolated and simply supported slab-column specimen is analytically evaluated. Post - Tensioned. POST TENSIONING IN BUILDING STRUCTURES and its nature of easy application to a wide variety of structure geometry and design solutions. Choosing the appropriate level of prestress. TN351 - Calculation of Cracked Deflection in ADAPT Software. The program is divided into three separate screens, which correspond to the three major areas of concern in the design of a post-tensioned member. 2 Precompression from Prestressing. Before a post-tension slab is poured, high-strength steel strands or cables, called tendons, are laid in a tight grid. 3 Minimum Field Investigation Program. Use Class S concrete (f c ́ = 4. xls RCC42 Post tensioned Analysis & Design. The longer spans cut down on the number of columns required and give the designer more freedom to layout the building. 2 Determinationofmaximumeccentricity 85 5. The requirement, V fg /V c ≤ 0. Yet, it’s rare to see PT used in New Zealand, despite the efficiencies it delivers to both developers and architects. Prestressed Storage Tanks Mike Harper Regional Manager mike. Equilibrium frame method. 1 Foundation raft "P&C Bergisch Gladbach" - 4. 3 Prestressed Flat Slabs and Plates Prestressed flat slabs and plates have been developed mainly in Australia and the USA over the last 30 years. Structural engineers design concrete slabs with post-tension cables to obtain greater span lengths between supporting columns and to allow thinner slabs. Due to this, there arises an urge to study the behaviour and response of flat slabs and Post tensioned flat slabs during an earthquake. Different loads can be achieved by different tendon profiles. By applying the provisions of Section M4. The cost of the concrete, including placing and finishing, usually. For example, a 5-inch slab can support a 5000-pound post load without additional concrete or rebar. The effects of post-. In the general case, the design moments used for the. Recommended Design Parameters. 3 Determinationofcable zone 87 5. xls RCC31 One-way slabs (A&D). FATBAR Post-Tensioned Anchors are available in any length up to 11,900 mm according to project need. How to acquire drawing set of Post-Tensioned Concrete slab design? I'm in the midst of training construction estimators how to estimate concrete and reinforcing for PT Slabs but can't find a good source with PT plans and details. anchored by means of wedges to the anchorage plates at the ends. Default Recent. •Decks with longitudinal post-tensioning have proven to be very durable 11 LONG TERM PERFORMANCE EXAMPLE I-84/Route 8 Interchange –Waterbury, CT 12 PROJECT EXAMPLE •Curved structure (straight beams) •6 Span bridge with continuous spans •Single lane •Pretensioned transversely and post tensioned longitudinally •42 Day construction. 2 Sandwich-Class Housing. Excel, for example, is a powerful spreadsheet with VBA robust programming capabilities that can be a powerful tool for teaching civil engineering concepts. By way of example, a PT. over the design thickness to allow for milling. Flat slab with drop caps Structural caculations. components include, for example, RC columns with short lap splices, beam-column joints with no joint reinforcement, and slab-column connections, etc. The invention relates to the design, production and implementation of a lightweight biaxial flat plate concrete slab system, comprising semi-prefabricated elements, designed and produced in such a way, that post-tensioning of part of the system, facilitates a finished slab structure that is homogeneous and can be achieved without temporary supports during the execution. In this post, we are going to show how we can analyse and design cantilever slabs subjected to floor load and block work load. Creating Openings in UnbOnded pOst-tensiOned slabs By Don Kline i t is often necessary to create openings in existing concrete slabs. precast concrete slab, reinforced concrete flat slab and post-tensioned concrete flat slab. , personal communication (email) with Nolan, S.
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